Hong Kong officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, is located on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in South China. With over 7.4 million Hongkongers of various nationalities in a territory of 1,104 square kilometres (426 sq mi), Hong Kong is the fourth-most densely populated region in the world.
Hong Kong was formerly a colony of the British Empire, after Qing China ceded Hong Kong Island at the conclusion of the First Opium War in 1842. Originally a lightly populated area of farming and fishing villages,the territory has become one of the most significant financial centres and trade ports in the world.With the exception of the Second World War, during which the colony was occupied by the Empire of Japan, Hong Kong remained under British control until 1997, when it was returned to China. As a special administrative region, Hong Kong’s system of government is separate from that in mainland China.
As the world’s seventh-largest trading entity,the territory’s legal tender, Hong Kong dollar, is the 13th-most traded currency.Hong Kong’s services-dominated economy is characterised by competitive simple taxation and supported by its common law judicial system.Although the city boasts one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it suffers severe income inequality.
The territory features the most skyscrapers in the world, surrounding Victoria Harbour, which lies in the centre of the city’s dense urban region.It has a very high Human Development Index ranking and the seventh-highest life expectancy in the world.Over 90% of its population makes use of well-developed public transportation.Seasonal air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates in winter.